Human Physiology/The gastrointestinal system - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
In addition to its functions in performing protein synthesis and processing, the ER The interaction of the lysosomal enzyme mannosephosphate with its receptor and after a meal as the pancreas replenishes its stores of digestive enzymes. . in molecular weight, carbohydrate content and electrophoretic mobility . Bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juices help neutralize acidic chyme and provide optimal These waves also play a role in mixing food with digestive juices. Instead, it makes the food smaller to increase both surface area and mobility. However, most digestive processes involve the interaction of several organs and occur. Adjusting to life without a pancreas can seem daunting at first, but most patients adjust remarkably well. the bloodstream to help control how the body uses food for energy. Patients who have normal function going into surgery can lose up to . Why UT Southwestern · Make a Gift · Careers · Texas Links.
The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and stomach acid-neutralizing bicarbonate. The liver produces bile, which is stored in the gall bladder before entering the bile duct into the duodenum. Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats continues in the small intestine.
Starch and glycogen are broken down into maltose by small intestine enzymes. Proteases are enzymes secreted by the pancreas that continue the breakdown of protein into small peptide fragments and amino acids.
Bile emulsifies fats, facilitating their breakdown into progressively smaller fat globules until they can be acted upon by lipases. Bile contains cholesterol, phospholipids, bilirubin, and a mix of salts. Fats are completely digested in the small intestine, unlike carbohydrates and proteins. Most absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejeunum second third of the small intestine.
The inner surface of the intestine has circular folds that more than triple the surface area for absorption. Villi covered with epithelial cells increase the surface area by another factor of The epithelial cells are lined with microvilli that further increase the surface area; a 6 meter long tube has a surface area of square meters. Each villus has a surface that is adjacent to the inside of the small intestinal opening covered in microvilli that form on top of an epithelial cell known as a brush border.
Each villus has a capillary network supplied by a small arteriole. Absorbed substances pass through the brush border into the capillary, usually by passive transport. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose are the main carbohydrates present in the small intestine; they are absorbed by the microvilli.
Starch is broken down into two-glucose units maltose elsewhere. Enzymes in the cells convert these disaccharides into monosaccharides that then leave the cell and enter the capillary. Lactose intolerance results from the genetic lack of the enzyme lactase produced by the intestinal cells. Peptide fragments and amino acids cross the epithelial cell membranes by active transport.
Inside the cell they are broken into amino acids that then enter the capillary. Gluten enteropathy is the inability to absorb gluten, a protein found in wheat.
Digested fats are not very soluble. Bile salts surround fats to form micellesas shown in Figure 7, that can pass into the epithelial cells. The bile salts return to the lumen to repeat the process. Fat digestion is usually completed by the time the food reaches the ileum lower third of the small intestine. Bile salts are in turn absorbed in the ileum and are recycled by the liver and gall bladder.
Fats pass from the epithelial cells to the small lymph vessel that also runs through the villus. Absorption of lipids by cells in the small intestine. The Liver and Gall Bladder The liver produces and sends bile to the small intestine via the hepatic duct, as illustrated in Figure 8. Bile contains bile salts, which emulsify fats, making them susceptible to enzymatic breakdown. In addition to digestive functions, the liver plays several other roles: The liver and associated organs and their connections to the digestive system.
The gall bladder stores excess bile for release at a later time. We can live without our gall bladders, in fact many people have had theirs removed. The drawback, however, is a need to be aware of the amount of fats in the food they eat since the stored bile of the gall bladder is no longer available.
Glycogen is a polysaccharide made of chains of glucose molecules, as shown in Figure 9. In plants starch is the storage form of glucose, while animals use glycogen for the same purpose. Low glucose levels in the blood cause the release of hormones, such as glucagonthat travel to the liver and stimulate the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which is then released into the blood raising blood glucose levels.
When no glucose or glycogen is available, amino acids are converted into glucose in the liver. The process of deamination removes the amino groups from amino acids. Urea is formed and passed through the blood to the kidney for export from the body.
Conversely, the hormone insulin promotes the take-up of glusose into liver cells and its formation into glycogen. Note the individual glucose molecules that are linked to form glycogen. Liver diseases Jaundice occurs when the characteristic yellow tint to the skin is caused by excess hemoglobin breakdown products in the blood, a sign that the liver is not properly functioning.
Jaundice may occur when liver function has been impaired by obstruction of the bile duct and by damage caused by hepatitis. Hepatitis A, B, and C are all viral diseases that can cause liver damage.
Like any viral disease, the major treatment efforts focus on treatment of symptoms, not removal of the viral cause. Hepatitis A is usually mild malady indicated by a sudden fever, malaise, nausea, anorexia, and abdominal discomfort. Jaundice follows up for several days. The virus causing Hepatitis A is primarilly transmitted by fecal contamination, although contaminated food and water also can promote transmission.
A rare disease in the United States, hepatitis B is endemic in parts of Asia where hundreds of millions of individuals are possibly infected.
Hepatitis B may be transmitted by blood and blood products as well as sexual contact. The blood supply in developed countries has been screened for the virus that causes this disease for many years and transmission by blood transfusion is rare. The risk of HBV infection is high among promiscuous homosexual men although it is also transmitted hetereosexually. Correct use of condoms is thought to reduce or eliminate the risk of transmission.
Effective vaccines are available for the prevention of Hepatitis B infection. Some individuals with chronic hepatitis B may develop cirrhosis of the liver. Individuals with chronic hepatitis B are at an increased risk of developing primary liver cancer. Although this type of cancer is relatively rare in the United States, it is the leading cause of cancer death in the world, primarily because the virus causing it is endemic in eastern Asia.
Hepatitis C affects approximately million people worldwide and 4 million in the United States. The virus is transmitted primarily by blood and blood products. Most infected individuals have either received blood transfusions prior to when screening of the blood supply for the Hepatitis C virus began or have used intravenous drugs. Sexual transmission can occur between monogamous couples rare but infection is far more common in those who are promiscuous.
In rare cases, Hepatitis C causes acute disease and even liver failure. About twenty percent of individuals with Hepatitis C who develop cirrhosis of the liver will also develop severe liver disease. Cirrhosis caused by Hepatitis C is presently the leading cause of the need for liver transplants in the United States. Individuals with cirrhosis from Hepatitis C also bear increased chances of developing primary liver cancer.
All current treatments for Hepatitis C employ of various preparations of the potent antiviral interferon alpha. However, not all patients who have the disease are good candidates for treatment, so infected individuals are urged to regularly consult their physician. Cirrhosis of the liver commonly occurs in alcoholics, who place the liver in a stress situation due to the amount of alcohol to be broken down.
Cirrhosis can cause the liver to become unable to perform its biochemical functions. Chemicals responsible for blood clotting are synthesized in the liver, as is albumin, the major protein in blood.
The liver also makes or modifies bile components. Blood from the circulatory system passes through the liver, so many of the body's metabolic functions occur primarily there including the metabolism of cholesterol and the conversion of proteins and fats into glucose. Cirrhosis is a disease resulting from damage to liver cells due to toxins, inflammation, and other causes.
Liver cells regenerate in an abnormal pattern primarily forming nodules that are surrounded by fibrous tissue. Changes in the structure of the liver can decrease blood flow, leading to secondary complications. Cirrhosis has many cuses, including alcoholic liver disease, severe forms of some viral hepatitis, congestive heart failure, parasitic infections for example schistosomiasisand long term exposure to toxins or drugs.
The Pancreas The pancreas sends pancreatic juice, which neutralizes the chyme, to the small intestive through the pancreatic duct. In addition to this digestive function, the pancrease is the site of production of several hormones, such as glucagon and insulin. The pancreas contains exocrine cells that secrete digestive enzymes into the small intestine and clusters of endocrine cells the pancreatic islets.
The islets secrete the hormones insulin and glucagonwhich regulate blood glucose levels. After a meal, blood glucose levels rise, prompting the release of insulin, which causes cells to take up glucose, and liver and skeletal muscle cells to form the carbohydrate glycogen. As glucose levels in the blood fall, further insulin production is inhibited. Glucagon causes the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which in turn is released into the blood to maintain glucose levels within a homeostatic range.
Glucagon production is stimulated when blood glucose levels fall, and inhibited when they rise. Diabetes results from inadequate levels of insulin.
Roles of Commensal Microbiota in Pancreas Homeostasis and Pancreatic Pathologies
Type I diabetes is characterized by inadequate levels of insulin secretion, often due to a genetic cause. Type II usually develops in adults from both genetic and environmental causes.
Loss of response of targets to insulin rather than lack of insulin causes this type of diabetes. Diabetes may cause impairment in the functioning of the eyes, circulatory system, nervous system, and failure of the kidneys. Diabetes is the second leading cause of blindness in the United States. Treatments might involve daily injections of insulin, oral medications such as metformin, monitoring of blood glucose levels, and a controlled diet. On recently recognized condition is known as prediabetes, in which the body gradually loses its sensitivity to insulin, leading eventually to Type II diabetes.
The fifth leading cause of cancer death in the United States is from pancreatic cancer, which is nearly always fatal. Scientists estimate that 25, people may die from this disease each year. Standard treatments are ineffective, although some promising avenues may open with advances in genomics and molecular biology of cancer cells. The Large Intestine The large intestine is made up by the colon, cecum, appendixand rectum. Material in the large intestine is mostly indigestible residue and liquid.
Movements are due to involuntary contractions that shuffle contents back and forth and propulsive contractions that move material through the large intestine. The large intestine performs three basic functions in vertebrates: The large intestine supports an amazing flora of microbes. Those microbes produce enzymes that can digest many of molecules indigestible by vertebrates. Secretions in the large intestine are an alkaline mucus that protects epithelial tissues and neutralizes acids produced by bacterial metabolism.
Water, salts, and vitamins are absorbed, the remaining contents in the lumen form feces mostly cellulose, bacteria, bilirubin. Bacteria in the large intestine, such as E. Regulation of Appetite Back to Top The hypothalamus in the brain has two centers controlling hunger. One is the appetite center, the other the satiety center.
Gastrinsecretinand cholecystokinin are hormones that regulate various stages of digestion. The presence of protein in the stomach stimulates secretion of gastrin, which in turn will cause increased stomach acid secretion and mobility of the digestive tract to move food. Food passing into the duodenum causes the production of secretin, which in turn promotes release of alkaline secretions from the pancreas, stops further passage of food into the intestine until the acid is neutralized.
Cholecystokinin CCK is released from intestinal epithelium in response to fats, and causes the release of bile from the gall bladder and lipase a fat digesting enzyme from the pancreas. Nutrition Back to Top Nutrition deals with the composition of food, its energy content, and slowly or not at all synthesized organic molecules.
Chemotrophs are organisms mostly bacteria deriving their energy from inorganic chemical reactions. Phototrophs convert sunlight energy into sugar or other organic molecules. Heterotrophs eat to obtain energy from the breakdown of organic molecules in their food.
Macronutrients are foods required on a large scale each day. These include carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Water is essential, correct water balance is a must for proper functioning of the body.
The diet should contain at least grams of carbohydrate every day. Recently, however, new recommendations have been developed that suggest a lowering of the amount of carbohydrate. A more detailed presentation of this topic may be fount at http: Proteins are polymers composed of amino acids. Proteins are found in meat, milk, poultry, fish, cereal grains and beans. The surface marking of the gallbladder is the intersection of the midclavicular line MCL and the trans pyloric plane, at the tip of the ninth rib.
The blood supply is by the cystic artery and vein, which runs parallel to the cystic duct. The cystic artery is highly variable, and this is of clinical relevance since it must be clipped and cut during a cholecystectomy. The gallbladder has an epithelial lining characterized by recesses called Aschoff's recesses, which are pouches inside the lining.
Under the epithelium there is a layer of connective tissue, followed by a muscular wall that contracts in response to cholecystokinin, a peptide hormone synthesized in the duodenum.
The gallbladder stores bile, which is released when food containing fat enters the digestive tract, stimulating the secretion of cholecystokinin CCK.
The bile emulsifies fats and neutralizes acids in partly digested food. After being stored in the gallbladder, the bile becomes more concentrated than when it left the liver, increasing its potency and intensifying its effect on fats.
Anus[ edit ] The human anus is situated between the buttocks, posterior to the perineum. It has two anal sphincters, one internal, the other external.
These hold the anus closed until defecation occurs. One sphincter consists of smooth muscle and its action is involuntary; the other consists of striated muscle and its action is voluntary. In many animals, the anus is surrounded by anal sacs. Role of the anus is when the rectum is full, the increase in intra-rectal pressure forces the walls of the anal canal apart allowing the fecal matter to enter the canal.
The rectum shortens as material is forced into the anal canal and peristaltic waves propel the feces out of the rectum. The internal and external sphincters of the anus allow the feces to be passed by muscles pulling the anus up over the exiting feces.
Conditions Affecting the Esophagus[ edit ] There are two different types of conditions that may affect the esophagus. The first type is called congenital: The second type is called non-congenital: Some examples of these are: Tracheoesophageal fistula and esophageal atresia Both of these conditions are congenital.
In Tracheoesophageal fistula there is a connection between the esophagus and the wind pipe trachea where there shouldn't be one. In Esophageal atresia the esophagus of a newborn does not connect to the stomach but comes to a dead end right before the stomach. Both conditions require corrective surgery and are usually detected right after the baby is born.
In some cases, it can be detected before the baby is born. Esophagitis Esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus and is a non-congenital condition. Esophagitis can be caused by certain medications or by infections. It can also be caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease gerda condition where the esophageal sphincter allows the acidic contents of the stomach to move back up into the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease can be treated with medications, but it can also be corrected by changing what you eat. Conditions Affecting the Stomach and Intestines[ edit ] Everybody has experienced constipation or diarrhea in their lifetime. With constipation, the contents of the large intestines don't move along fast enough and waste material stays in the large intestines so long that almost all water is extracted out of the waste and it becomes hard.
With diarrhea you get the exact opposite reaction: Common flora bacteria assists in the prevention of many serious problems. Here are some more examples of common stomach and intestinal disorders: An exemplary case of acute appendicitis in a year-old boy.
The organ is enlarged and sausage-like botuliform. This longitudinal section shows the angry red inflamed mucosa with its irregular luminal surface. Diagnosed and removed early in the course of the disease, this appendix does not show late complications, like transmural necrosis, perforation, and abscess formation.
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the appendix, the finger-like pouch that extends from the cecum. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fever, and vomiting. Children and teenagers are the most common victims of appendicitis, which must be corrected by surgery.
While mild cases may resolve without treatment, most require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy.
Untreated, mortality is high, mainly due to peritonitis and shock.
the digestive system
Celiac Disease Celiac disease is a disorder in which a person's digestive system is damaged by the response of the immune system to a protein called gluten, which is found in rye, wheat, and barley, and also in foods like breakfast cereal and pizza crust.
People who have celiac disease experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, exhaustion, and depression when they eat foods with gluten in them. They also have difficulty digesting their food. Celiac disease runs in families and becomes active after some sort of stress, like viral infections or surgery.
The symptoms can be managed by following a gluten free diet. Doctors can diagnose this condition by taking a full medical history or with a blood test.
Diverticulitis Benign gastric ulcer Diverticulitis is a common disease of the bowel, in particular the large intestine. Diverticulitis develops from diverticulosis, which involves the formation of pouches diverticula on the outside of the colon. Diverticulitis results if one of these diverticula becomes inflamed. In complicated diverticulitis, bacteria may subsequently infect the outside of the colon if an inflamed diverticula bursts open.
If the infection spreads to the lining of the abdominal cavity peritoneumthis can cause a potentially fatal peritonitis. Sometimes inflamed diverticula can cause narrowing of the bowel, leading to an obstruction. Also, the affected part of the colon could adhere to the bladder or other organ in the pelvic cavity, causing a fistula, or abnormal communication between the colon and an adjacent organ. Gastritis and Peptic ulcers Usually the stomach and the duodenum are resistant to irritation because of the strong acids produced by the stomach.
But sometimes a bacteria called Helicobacter pylori or the chronic use of drugs or certain medications, weakens the mucous layer that coats the stomach and the duodenum, allowing acid to get through the sensitive lining beneath. This can cause irritation and inflammation of the lining of the stomach, which is called gastritis, or cause peptic ulcers, which are holes or sores that form in the lining of the stomach and duodenum and cause pain and bleeding.
Medications are the best way to treat this condition. Gastrointestinal Infections Gastrointestinal infections can be caused by bacteria such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. They can also be caused by viruses or by intestinal parasites like amebiasis and Giardiasis. The most common symptoms of gastrointestinal infections are abdominal pain and cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.
These conditions usually go away on their own and don't need medical attention. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease is the chronic inflammation of the intestines, which usually affects older children, teens and adults. Ulcerative colitis usually affects just the rectum and large intestine, while Crohn's disease can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus along with some other parts of the body.
Patients with these diseases also suffer from extraintestinal symptoms including joint pain and red eye, which can signal a flare of the disease. These diseases are treated with medications and if necessary, Intravenous or IV feeding, or in the more serious cases, surgery to remove the damaged areas of the intestines. Polyp A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue tumor projecting from a mucous membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk it is said to be pedunculated.
If no stalk is present it is said to be sessile. Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, urinary bladder and uterus. They may also occur elsewhere in the body where mucous membranes exist like the cervix and small intestine. Disorders of the Pancreas, Liver, and Gallbladder[ edit ] Disorders of the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder affect the ability to produce enzymes and acids that aid in digestion.
Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a chronic, inherited illness where the production of abnormally thick mucous blocks the duct or passageways in the pancreas and prevents the digestive fluids from entering the intestines, making it difficult for the person with the disorder to digest protein and fats, which cause important nutrients to pass through without being digested. People with this disorder take supplements and digestive enzymes to help manage their digestive problems. Hepatitis Hepatitis is a viral condition that inflames a person's liver which can cause it to lose its ability to function.
Viral hepatitis, like hepatitis A, B, and C, is extremely contagious. Hepatitis A, which is a mild form of hepatitis, can be treated at home, but more serious cases that involve liver damage, might require hospitalization. Cholecystitis Acute or chronic inflammation if the gallbladder causes abdominal pain.
The actual inflammation is due to secondary infection with bacteria of an obstructed gallbladder, with the obstruction caused by the gallstones.
Gallbladder conditions are very rare in kids and teenagers but can occur when the kid or teenager has sickle cell anemia or in kids being treated with long term medications. Cholestasis Cholestasis is the blockage in the supply of bile into the digestive tract. It can be "intrahepatic" the obstruction is in the liver or "extrahepatic" outside the liver. It can lead to jaundice, and is identified by the presence of elevated bilirubin level that is mainly conjugated.
Biliary colic This is when a gallstone blocks either the common bile duct or the duct leading into it from the gallbladder. This condition causes severe pain in the right upper abdomen and sometimes through to the upper back. It is described by many doctors as the most severe pain in existence, between childbirth and a heart attack. Other symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding caused by continual vomiting, and dehydration caused by the nausea and diarrhea.
Another more serious complication is total blockage of the bile duct which leads to jaundice, which if it is not corrected naturally or by surgical procedure can be fatal, as it causes liver damage. The only long term solution is the removal of the gallbladder. Gastrointestinal Dysfunctions[ edit ] As we age, the amount of digestive enzymes produced by the body drops way down. This leads to decreased and slower digestion, slower absorption of nutrients and increased accumulation of fecal mater in the intestinal tract.
Undigested food material and metabolic waste can also build up due to slow elimination, starting a series of health problems. When digestion slows, it turns the intestines into a toxic environment. Helpful organisms cannot live in toxic environments. When the beneficial organisms die they are replaced by harmful organisms, such as yeasts and parasites, the most common being Candida albicans.
This leads to changes in the intestinal wall which produce leaky gut syndrome, which allows many toxic chemicals to be introduced into the bloodstream. As a result, the entire toxic load of the body is increased, causing a bigger burden on the liver, kidneys and other body organs.
When this happens the organs that are normally used for eliminating waste and supplying nutrients to the GI tract become a large dump for waste. This problem can be made worse by the use of prescriptions and over-the-counter medications, antibiotics, and a diet that is too low in fiber or contains 'junk food'.
Most people never think about their GI tract. We are concerned about what the outside of our bodies look like, but we completely ignore the inside. Because our bodies a very resilient, deterioration of the digestive system can go on for years with no symptoms or side-effects.
- Human digestive system
- Human Physiology/The gastrointestinal system
- Gut reaction: A limited role for digestive enzyme supplements
When symptoms finally do appear they are usually very non-specific, and include: Over the years these symptoms become more serious, including: Poor digestion, poor absorption, and bacterial imbalance can be traced to many chronic conditions. Every organ in the body receives nutrients from the GI tract; if the GI tract is malfunctioning then the whole body suffers. It is possible to return good health to your GI tract by improving digestion, consuming the right amount of fiber, and cutting out junk food and refined sugars.
You can improve the function of the intestines by taking fiber supplements and vitamins especially B12 and vitamin K. Some doctors suggest herbal or vitamin enemas to cleanse and relieve constipation and to help stimulate peristaltic movement which will help to move the bowels.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS is a disorder with symptoms that are most commonly bloating, abdominal pain, cramping, constipation, and diarrhea. IBS causes a lot of pain and discomfort. It does not cause permanent damage to the intestines and does not lead to serious diseases such as cancer.
Most of the people affected with IBS can control their symptoms with stress management, diet, and prescription medication. For others IBS can be debilitating, they may be unable to go to work, travel, attend social events or leave home for even short periods of time. About 20 percent of the adult population has some symptoms of IBS, making it one of the most common intestinal disorders diagnosed by physicians.
It is more common in men than women and in about 50 percent of people affected it starts at about age Researchers have not found out what exactly causes IBS. One idea is that people with IBS have a large intestine colon that is sensitive to certain foods and stress.
The immune system may also be involved. It has also been reported that serotonin is linked with normal GI functioning. People with IBS have diminished receptor activity, causing abnormal levels of serotonin in the GI tract.
Because of this, IBS patients experience problems with bowel movement, motility, and the sensation having more sensitive pain receptors in their GI tract. Many IBS patients suffer from depression and anxiety which can make symptoms worse. There is no cure for IBS, but medications are an important part of relieving symptoms. Fiber supplements or laxatives are helpful for constipation. Anti diarrhoeals such as Imodium can help with diarrhea. An antispasmodic is commonly prescribed for colon muscle spasms.
Antidepressants and pain medication are also commonly prescribed. These types of cancers begin in the connective tissue like fat, muscles, nerves, cartilage, etc.
GIST originates in the stroma cells. Stroma cells are strung along the GI tract and are part of the system that helps the body to know when to move food through the digestive system. Over half of GISTs occur in the stomach. Most cases occur in people between the ages of forty and eighty, but they can also occur in a person of any age.
All GISTs of any size or location have the ability to spread. In the early stages, GIST is hard to diagnose because early-stage symptoms cannot be recognized.
In the later stages a person can have vague abdominal pain, vomiting, abdominal bleeding that shows up in stool or vomit, low blood counts causing anemia, and having an early feeling of being full, causing a decrease in appetite. GIST is now recognized as an aggressive cancer that is able to spread to other parts of the body.
People who have been diagnosed with GIST should get treatment as soon as possible. Food Allergies Food allergies occur when the immune system thinks that a certain protein in any kind of food is a foreign substance and will try to fight against it. Only about eight percent of children and two percent of adults actually have a food allergy.
A person can be allergic to any kind of food, but the most common food allergies are to nuts, cow's milk, eggs, soy, fish, and shellfish. Most people who have a food allergy are allergic to fewer than four different foods. The most common signs of food allergies are hives, swelling, itchy skin, itchiness, tingling or swelling in the mouth, coughing, trouble breathing, diarrhea, and vomiting.
The two most common chronic illness that are associated with food allergies are eczema and asthma. Food allergies can be fatal if they cause the reaction called anaphylaxis. This reaction makes it hard for the person to breathe. This can be treated by an epinephrine injection. When this happens, contents from the stomach, called reflux, leak back into the esophagus and the stomach.
When the stomach refluxes, stomach acid touches the lining of the esophagus and causes it to have a burning feeling in the throat or the chest.
This is what heartburn is. When you taste the fluid in the back of your throat, it is called acid indigestion. It is common for a person to get occasional heartburn, but when it occurs more than twice a week it can be considered to be GERD. GERD can occur in people of all ages including infants. Some symptoms of GERD include having a pain in your chest, hoarseness, having trouble swallowing, or having the feeling of food being stuck in your throat. The main symptoms are having persistent heartburn and acid regurgitation.Foods to Heal Your Pancreas - Top 10 Natural Ways to Cure Pancreas
GERD can also cause bad breath and a dry cough. No one knows why people get GERD. Some things that could contribute to GERD are alcohol use, pregnancy, being overweight and smoking.
Certain foods might also contribute like citrus fruits, caffeine, spicy, fatty, and dried foods, and also mint flavorings. Over-the-counter antacids or medications that help stop acid production and help the muscles empty the stomach are commonly used to treat GERD.
Constipation Not everyone is on the same schedule for having a bowel movement. Depending on the person, a "normal" schedule can range anywhere from three times a day to three times a week.
If you start having bowel movements less than your own personal schedule, then you might be getting the signs of constipation. Constipation is when you have trouble having bowel movements. The stool is very hard, making it difficult to pass and causing a person to strain. You may even feel like you have to have a bowel movement even after you have already had one. When you digest food, the waste products go through your intestines by the muscles contracting. When in the large intestine, most of the water and salt from the waste products are reabsorbed because they are needed by the body for our everyday functions.
You can become constipated if too much water is absorbed, or if waste products move too slowly. Not getting enough fluids, a low fiber diet, age, not being physically active, depression, stress and pregnancy can all contribute to constipation. Medications and narcotics can also cause a person to get constipated. Chronic constipation may be a symptom of a liver problem such as a urea cycle disorder.
The best way for a person to treat constipation is to make sure that they are getting enough fluids as well as fiber in their diet. By doing this, the bulk of their stool is increased and made softer, so that it can move through the intestines more easily.
Being more active and increasing daily exercise also helps keep bowel movements regulated. Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids also known as haemorrhoids, emerods, or piles are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. Two of the most common types of hemorrhoids are external and internal hemorrhoids.
External hemorrhoids are those that occur outside of the anal verge the distal end of the anal canal. They are sometimes painful, and can be accompanied by swelling and irritation. Itching, although often thought to be a symptom from external hemorrhoids, is more commonly due to skin irritation.
If the vein ruptures and a blood clot develops, the hemorrhoid becomes a thrombosed hemorrhoid. Internal hemorrhoids are those that occur inside the rectum. As this area lacks pain sensory receptor receptors, internal hemorrhoids are usually not painful and most people are not aware that they have them.
Internal hemorrhoids, however, may bleed when irritated. Untreated internal hemorrhoids can lead to two severe forms of hemorrhoids: Prolapsed hemorrhoids are internal hemorrhoids that are so distended that they are pushed outside of the anus. If the anal sphincter muscle goes into spasm and traps a prolapsed hemorrhoid outside of the anal opening, the supply of blood is cut off, and the hemorrhoid becomes a strangulated hemorrhoid.
Bleeding in the Gastrointestinal tract[ edit ] Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract doesn't always mean you have a disease, it's usually a symptom of a digestive problem. The cause of the bleeding may not be that serious, it could be something that can be cured or controlled such as hemorrhoids.
However, locating the source of the bleeding is very important. The gastrointestinal tract contains many important organs like the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine or colon, rectum, and anus. Bleeding can come from one or more of these area from a small ulcer in the stomach, or a large surface like the inflammation of the colon. Sometimes a person doesn't even know they are bleeding.
When this happens, it is called hidden, or occult bleeding. Simple tests can detect hidden blood in the stool. What Causes Bleeding in the Digestive Tract Esophageal bleeding may be caused by Mallory-Weiss syndrome which is a tear in the esophagus. Mallory-Weiss syndrome is usually caused by excessive vomiting or may be caused by childbirth, a hiatal hernia, or increased pressure in the abdomen caused by coughing. Various medications can cause stomach ulcers or inflammations.
Medications containing aspirin or alcohol, and various other medications mainly those used for arthritis are some examples of these. Benign tumors or cancer of the stomach may also cause bleeding. These disorders don't usually produce massive bleeding. The most common source of bleeding usually occurs from ulcers in the duodenum. Researchers believe that these ulcers are caused by excessive stomach acid and a bacteria called Helicobacter Pylori.
In the lower digestive tract, the most common source of bleeding is in the large intestine, and the rectum. Hemorrhoids are the most common cause of bleeding in the digestive tract. Hemorrhoids are enlarged veins in the anal area which produces bright red blood that you see in the toilet or on the toilet paper.
How do you Recognize Bleeding in the Digestive Tract The signs of bleeding in the digestive tract vary depending on the site and severity of the bleeding.