Early Head Start National Resource Center
The mission of Early Head Start is clear: to support healthy prenatal outcomes and The Congressionally-mandated Early Head Start Research and Evaluation that Early Head Start is making a positive difference in areas associated with functioning (although still below the mean of national norms). Prepared by the Early Head Start National Resource Center @ ZERO TO THREE . Washington, D.C. .. toddlers are concerned with the relationship between. Early Head Start National Resource Center, Zero to Three. Map 23rd St. NW Ste. Washington, DC Categories.
Parents reported they were less likely to hit or fight with others, or be hyperactive or withdrawn than control group children. Those former EHS children who attended formal preschool programs received the benefits of both programs — enhanced early reading skills expected from preschool participation, but with less of the aggressive behavior sometimes associated with attending formal preschool programs. EHS may provide a protective factor when it comes to these behavior problems.
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EHS programs have significant favorable impacts on a range of parenting outcomes. EHS parents were observed to be more emotionally supportive and less detached than control-group parents.
They also provided significantly more support for language and learning than did the control-group parents. Early Head Start significantly improved how fathers interacted and related to their children.
EHS children were observed to be more able to engage their fathers and to be more attentive during play than control group children. EHS fathers were observed to be less intrusive in interacting with their children than control group fathers. These parents were more likely to read to their children every day and came up with learning activities such as pre-math or pre-reading games on their own.
They thought about whether materials available in the home were developmentally appropriate. Parents were more likely to have reached self-sufficiency with higher monthly incomes. The home environment offered more learning activities. The children had better social and math skills and fewer behavior problems. At enrollment, and at age three, there had been a high level of maternal depression in both the EHS and control groups.
Early Head Start did not have an immediate impact on the depressive symptoms, but did have positive impacts on the parent-child interactions of depressed parents. And two years after the end of the program, former EHS parents report fewer symptoms of depression. Children in families at high levels of demographic risk who attended Early Head Start and Head Start a comprehensive pre-kindergarten program including family services fared particularly well.
Impacts for low and moderate risk groups were sustained over the two years. African-American children were particularly likely to be enrolled in formal programs following Early Head Start.
Study Design The scientific design for the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project was rigorous and conservative in drawing conclusions from their findings.
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Differences in research designs make it difficult to compare other well-respected national intervention studies to the Early Head Start evaluation.
Both waves of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project were based on a large research sample — over 3, families. Other studies, such as the Abecedarian Project and the Nurse Home Visitation Program studies, had much smaller samples for their studies — children were part of the Abecedarian study and mothers were involved in the Nurse Home Visitation Program.
Early Head Start produced positive outcomes over a much greater scale with a more diverse population.
The Administration on Children, Youth and Families designed a thorough and rigorous random-assignment evaluation to examine the impacts of Early Head Start on child and family outcomes when the children were 14, 24, and 36 months old.
In the follow-up results, released in April ofthose same children had been assessed again prior to kindergarten entry at an average age of 63 months or just over five years of age. The Abecedarian Study followed children through age 21 and the Nurse Home Visitation Program followed children through age The Impact of Early Head Start may be even greater than data show. Although they did not receive any Early Head Start services, children in the control group were permitted to receive other services in the community.
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The 17 research programs were not randomly selected. However, the research sites included a wide range of locations and program approaches, the families served by the research programs resembled the families served by other EHS programs, and the research sites differed with respect to their experience serving infants and their years in operation. Thus, the results from the evaluation of these programs are likely to be applicable to other EHS programs.
As soon as program officials from each site determined that applicant families met the EHS eligibility guidelines, families were randomly assigned to either the treatment or the control group. Control group families were able to receive other services in the community, as long as those services were not provided by EHS. Therefore, the comparisons of treatment and control group outcomes represent the effects of EHS services relative to the receipt of all other community services available to families in the absence of EHS.
During the sample intake period between July and September3, families were randomly assigned to the treatment groups 1, families and control groups 1, families. Most sites included samples of between and families, divided evenly between the two research groups. Researchers examined outcomes for the Early Head Start participants and their families at age 3, age 5, and age 8 fifth grade.
Key outcomes at age 3 included measures of both cognitive skills and social-emotional development.
Social-emotional development was assessed by observations of children's behavior during semi-structured play, as assessed by trained observers of videotaped parent-child interactions. Forty-nine outcomes were assessed at age 8, including social-emotional outcomes, child academic outcomes, parenting and the home environment, family well-being and mental health, and parent self-sufficiency.
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Additionally, multi-domain indices were constructed from the outcomes to measure cumulative risk and cumulative success. The age-8 follow-up included 1, respondents, or Attrition was particularly high among the highest-risk respondents. However, study authors conducted sensitivity testing to determine the effect of attrition on impact estimates and found that findings were similar across different models. Utah Study Roggman et al. The authors assessed whether the developmental path change over time for cognitive skills was different for children in EHS versus the control group.
The sample included mothers in the EHS group and 98 in the comparison group who were either pregnant at the time of application or had infants under ten months old. To meet program requirements, more than 90 percent of families were low-income, as defined by federal poverty guidelines, and most families 97 percent received some sort of public assistance, such as Medicaid, food stamps, or WIC benefits.
Most children in the sample were Caucasian 82 percent.