The Swahili coast is defined, however, more by the culture of its people than the by sailing and fishing, commercial ties to the Indian Ocean and African interior, and Genes, Memes and Human History: Darwinian Archaeology and. Africa. The Swahili people identified themselves with Islam and their leaders struggled to link their l'époque où la culture swahili était elle-même florissante. . Mediterranean world, as well as cassia, originated from the interior of East Africa. East Africa and the Middle East relationship from the first millennium BC to about AD leur apogée à l'époque où la culture swahili était elle-même florissante. The Swahili people identified themselves with Islam and their leaders . He probably followed a trade route from Rhapta to the deep interior where he.
Historical Association of Tanzania Paper No. A History of Tanzania. Journal of African History 24 4: Robertson and Martin A. Women and Slavery in Africa University of Wisconsin Press. International Journal of African Historical Studies 17 4: Essays in Honour of P. The Politics of Swahili Identity and Culture.
Arab Slave Trade - Islam and Africa
Journal of African Law 1 1: Mazumgumzo ya Alfu-lela-ulela, au Siku Elfu na Moja: The Arabian Nights, Entertainments in Swahili. The Social History of an Ethnic Group.
A Century of Change in Eastern Africa, A Necessary Remark on Literary Criticism. Kiswahili 42 2 1: Aumuller, Ingeborg Dekolonisation und Nationwerdung in Sansibar: A Study in Constitutional Development, Babakerim The Aftermath of the Zanzibar Revolution.
Works on the Swahili Coast
Journal des Africanistes 67 2: Bailey, Martin The Union of Zanzibar: A Study in Political Integration. International Journal of Politics 4 4: I Was Nyerere's Prisoner. Hans Meyer'schen Expedition in Usambara. London and New York: Swahili Modernities in press Lawrenceville, NJ: Journal of the African Society Dar es Salaam University Law Journal 5: Boston University Papers in African History 1: African Studies Center, Boston University.
Journal of African History 9 1: A Survey of East African History. East African Publishing House, Bergman, Jeanne A Willingness to Remember: Lugha I [University of Uppsala], Bertoncini, Elena Zubkova Ricerche sul lessico, di alcuni racconti swahili.Julius Malema Attacks Theresa May; Wants Swahili adopted as Africa's common language
Annali dell'Istituto Orientale di Napoli Muhammad Said Abdulla and Euphrase Kezilahabi. In Ulla Schild, ed. The East African Experience: Essays on English and Swahili Literature Research in African Literatures 17 4: Corso di Lingua Swahili. Dipartimento studi e ricerche su Africa e Paesi Arabi, Istituto universitario orientale. Prose Fiction and Drama. Women in Swahili Literature.
Berwouts, Kris Le Sein de la Mere: Introduction a la Litterature Classique et Moderne en Swahili. Centre d'etude et de documentation afraicaines Bhacker, Reda M. Roots of British Domination. Bhagat, Herkishan and Haroub Othman. Utafiti [Dar es Salaam] 3 1: Faces of Islam in African Literature Michigan State University Press. Research in African Literatures 20 3: Peter Administration of Justice in Tanzania and Zanzibar: International and Comparative Law Quarterly 38 April: Bissell, William Cunningham Colonial Constructions: Historicizing Debates on Civil Society in Africa.
University of Chicago Press, — Urban Planning, Space, and Power in Zanzibar. Anderson and Richard Rathbone, eds. Duke University Press, pp. Cultural Anthropology 20 2: African Identities 5 2: Sociology Compass 2 5: Population Studies [London] African Institute Publication No.
Essays in Honour of Marcel van Spaandonck Boyd, Alan William The Zumari: A Musical Instrument in the Lamu Area. Bravman, Renee African Islam. International Journal of African Historical Studies 4: International Journal of African Historical Studies 4 3: City, Island, and Coast.
Swahili Adult Song Performance in Context. Campbell, Jane Multiracialism and Politics in Zanzibar. Political Science Quarterly 77 1: The Indo-Tibetan Interface In Anne Sutherland, ed. Some Anthropological Themes Some Implications for Women. In Nici Nelson, ed. African Women in the Development Process, From Zinj to Zanzibar: Women and Property, Women as Property London: This means that African woman have been part of the population of Arabia, especially Yemen.
This points to some form of enslavement due to the dynamics of gender and conquest; conquering men impregnate conquered women. Moreover, Africa is not a country, and should not be treated as a united single polity. And its influence is still responsible for the social status of some African groups especially in Chad, Sudan and Mauritania. And it is during the Arab slave trade that we see the first clear evidence of a racist attitude in history towards African people as a race.
Its legacy was also radically different in the terms of post-slavery racism and disruption to African sovereignty.
This makes any discussion of the Arab slave trade problematic using 21st century identity models. It was once believed that the Atlantic slave trade was a largely self-contained phenomenon.
However, it is now acknowledged that this slave trade was part of a much wider picture, which includes traditional African slave systems, and the Arab slave trade.
All conflicted at various stages in their history as well as complemented each other. To this day no reliable historical documents substantiate such theories. One of the biggest differences between Arab slaving and European slaving was that slaves were drawn from all racial groups and they were rarely used as a means of crop production; slaves were not the economic engine behind Arab economies.
The Roman era began with the Romans trying to break barriers established for centuries by Arabs in the Red Sea and in the Indian Ocean that hindered the Mediterraneans in their access to the Indian Ocean for trade.
The Arabs had been making much profit by selling goods, including spices of the Indian Ocean seaboards, to the Mediterraneans for exorbitant prices.
Accessibility to the Indian Ocean markets by Mediterraneans would have adversely affected the economy of the Arabs. In entering the Indian Ocean, the Romans discovered a secret kept by the Arabs for a long time: The same could be done between southern Arabia and western India Journal des Africanistes 72 2 As the Romans used the trade winds for the first time to trade in Azania, they found that the Arabs had already been in East Africa.
They had been involved in trade affairs in the emporium of Rhapta Casson How long had these Arabs of the Red Sea and its interior been trading with Azania?
It was noted earlier that Strabo and Pliny reported that cinnamon and cassia were found in the interior of East Africa. The movement of Arabs to Rhapta therefore aimed to redirect goods from there to the north Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. Notice that when the Romans controlled the Red Sea-India and Azania route, they also checked to make sure that the interior route was not functioning. This was the purpose of Nero's expedition to the Marshes of the Nile, which reported back that the route had ceased to function and that it had shifted to the Red Sea Welsby ; Chami Probably, this was also the purpose of Diogenes' visit to the source of the Nile in the last part of the first century or second century AD.
The Periplus Maris Erythreai Casson reports that the Arabs who were found trading in the town of Rhapta could speak the local language and had intermarried with the Rhaptonoids.
These reports suggest that the East Africans were not only trading with the Arabs but that they also had cultural links with them. It is obvious that the Romans also wanted to control Rhapta as they did for other emporiums elsewhere in the north. Consequently, the Arabs found their trade monopoly at Rhapta threatened.
They had to find justifications for their struggle to maintain the status quo. Hence the following remark: Observe the interlacustrine-Nile route Journal des Africanistes 72 2 These sites have been found to contain remains of trade goods including beads and pottery from the Mediterranean world, the Middle East and India Chami ; Chami a, b and c.
This list adds to what was reported by the Periplus as goods imported and exported from Azania Casson Map 2 shows how the situation was in Greco-Roman times. Observe the presence of iron working cultural complexes including Limbo, Urewe and Meroe Chami Only one early 6th century document, that of Cosmas bidicopleustus, is known to have reported an interior trade route between the Axumites and East Africa Freeman-Grenville It should be noted here that the Sasanian power began in AD when the first Sasanian ruler, Ardashir, overthrew the last of the Parthians.
On their side, Ethiopians based at Axum started controlling the Red Sea from the fourth century. It is likely that while the Ethiopians used the interior route to trade with East Africa, as reported by Cosmas, the people of the Middle East may have used the Indian Ocean to access East Africa. Cosmas mentions the town called Sasu, which was the trade center of East Africa, as trading with Axumites. Sasu is reported to have been located in the interior, but near the ocean.
- European exploration of Africa
Gold was the main item of export. It is not known if Sasu was formerly Rhapta which had changed name. Ptolemy reported that Rhapta was located a bit to the interior Journal des Africanistes 72 2 There could have been another town emerging to the north of Rhapta which had greater connections with the Sasanian Persian Gulf. As it will be noted later, this could be Lanjuya and hence the site of Unguja Ukuu in Zanzibar. If the historical data is not clear, one thing is obvious from the archaeological record regarding the coast of Tanzania from to AD.
The EIW tradition, which was the cultural tradition of the Azanian, split into two separate sub-traditions. What is known today as TIW tradition developed in the area of the Zanzibar Channel, the island and the interior.
What is called Mwangia tradition developed on the coast south of the Zanzibar Channel, with the core at the Rufiji region of the EIW tradition. The largest known site of the former is that of Unguja Ukuu in Zanzibar Juma The sites of the TIW tradition seem to have benefited more from international trade as they have many artefacts from the northern Indian ocean, especially from Persia Chami ; Juma So far, no artefacts of external trade have been found at the Mwangia sites.
This tradition expanded to cover the Mwangia area as far south as Mozambique and as far interior as the borders of modern Tanzania. However, the Kenya and Somali coasts seem to have been little affected by the Early TIW phase as no site of this tradition dating back to before AD is presently known.
The archaeology of the early phase TIW tradition has been reported elsewhere Chami Beads and glass from the north Indian Ocean also occur very frequently.
East Africa and the Middle East relationship from the first millennium BC to about AD - Persée
At this time, Muslim forces in crusade were advancing through North Africa and Asia. The earliest recorded attempt by the Muslims to conquer East Africa occurred at the end of the 7th century. Al Jahiz, a 9th century African scholar based in the Middle East, wrote about East Africa and episodes that had taken place there from the 7th century. One of the events took place in the late 7th Journal des Africanistes 72 2 The Arab army "was destroyed by the natives" Lewicki It is not clear if there were any more efforts by Arabs to launch war in East Africa.