Gender roles are the patterns of behaviors, attitudes, and expectations associated with a particular sex—with being either male or female. For clarity. This independent expert report is a review of international research evidence on the relationship between gender and education. It focuses. Keywords: sociology of education, gender in education, school success, school Sociology of education, through its interest in the relationships, roles and.
When education provides women with literacy and numeracy skills, it helps them acquire critical knowledge for everyday life such as understanding political platforms and voting, which many of us take for granted. What happens in classrooms is crucial for challenging gender gaps in leadership.
Sex differences in education - Wikipedia
Quality schooling can offer young people opportunities to learn about and practice leadership roles through school clubs and committees. Female role models can attract girls to school and improve their learning outcomes.
Men are more likely to ascend to leadership positions in schools, even where the majority of teachers are women. Transformation of the education sector — including the structures and composition of school management, governance, and education ministries — is needed to create a gender equitable environment.
Female share of school management personnel, by level of education, selected countries, Source: Equally, having more male principals or administrators indicates that men are more likely to become managers than women. Higher education is important but does not guarantee equality in the public sphere.
As a rule, when considering and analyzing almost every gender issue, the two kinds of approaches are used: The biological argument is based on an assumption that the genetic heritage from the human ancestors determines the differentiated specializations of brains of men and women. The right hemisphere is responsible for space-visual and mathematic skills. In case of women the specialization of the left hemisphere occurred; this is responsible for the verbal and perceptual skills.
These arguments are used by supporters of the biological approach to explain the better academic performances of boys in mathematics, geometrics and technical subjects and of girls in languages and other humanitarian subjects. According to the second approach, the gender differences in educational are due to the external processes such are the socialization and the upbringing; and especially the socialization that takes place at schools.
In this new atmosphere they are predisposed to establish relations with only the children of the same gender. Besides the relationships with peers, the second factor that forms the gender identity is the differentiated attitudes and expectations of teachers towards female and male children.
Also, the encouragement and punishment techniques for boys and girls are differentiated at school. The majority of teachers still have the opinion that the main function of woman is a family and children, and this is of course reflected in their expectations and demands.
And the pupils accept these attitudes as norm and try to adapt to it. At the lessons teachers give differentiated attention to their male and female pupils and spend their time disproportionally while interacting with them. Meanwhile the girls are sitting quietly and work on their tasks.
It is important to mention one more detail - the pattern of how pupils are sitting in the classroom is also gender dependent. The girls have tendency to sit more in the front or centre of the classroom, closer to the teacher and the boys are mostly occupying margins and periphery of the room. This pattern of sitting requires even more effort of teachers to control the male pupils 7: Besides the existing interpersonal interactions at schools, the formation of gender stereotypes is significantly encouraged by the text books and other reading materials used in the learning process.
In such a way the female students are not provided with the appropriate role models of successful women 7: Unfortunately, their female teachers as well cannot fit into this role model considering their low-status positions and low salaries.
Despite of the fact that the female teachers outnumber male teachers at schools, due to various reasons pregnancy, child care they still occupy lower-status positions than their male colleagues 7: Does the situation at Georgian schools and centers of higher education correspond to the analyses described above?
This can further be seen in technology and computer courses.
- Sex differences in education
For example, society suggests that women should be mothers and responsible for the bulk of child rearing. Therefore, women feel compelled to pursue educational pathways that lead to occupations that allow for long leaves of absence, so they can be stay-at-home mothers. Hidden curriculum is the idea that race, class, and gender have an influence on the lessons that are taught in schools. Some curriculum have even been rewritten to highlight the roles played by white males.
An example of this would be the way wars are talked about. Curriculum's on the Civil War, for instance, tend to emphasize the key players as Ulysses S. Lee, and Abraham Lincoln. Whereas woman or men of color such as Harriet Tubman as a spy for the Union, Harriet Beecher Stowe or Frederick Douglass, are downplayed from their part in the war. Shop classes and advanced sciences are seen as more masculine, whereas home economics, art, or humanities are seen as more feminine.
The problem comes when students receive different treatment and education because of his or her gender or race. Girls may be encouraged to learn skills valued in female-dominated fields, while boys might learn leadership skills for male-dominated occupations.
Gender Influence on Educational Process
For example, as they move into the secondary and post-secondary phases of their education, boys tend to gravitate more toward STEM courses than their female classmates. In a study by Rebecca Carter, of which private and public school 8th graders were looked at using the National Education Longitudinal Study NELSa study which provides many details regarding parental involvement in their child's educational attainment. However, it was noted that females were more likely than males to have less time spent socializing with friends based on parental involvement, reflecting the concept that parents put forth greater efforts to protect their daughters.
Data has also shown that parental attendance at school events is greater for daughters than for sons, and when controlling for academic factors its been found that over half of the gender differences that had been found were explained by academic factors, meaning that parental involvement in these events were influenced by daughter's academic performance. Parents may spend differently based on gender of their children which is an unequal treatment.
Shaleen Khanal studied the expenditure people spent on girls and boys in Nepal.Gender and Learning
Also, parents in Nepal are more willing to spend more money in order to let boys to go to private school for the better education. This phenomenon is more pronounced in Nepal' s rural area, but it happened in urban areas as well. Sex discrimination in high school and college course-taking also results in women not being prepared or qualified to pursue more prestigious, high paying occupations.
Sex discrimination in education also results in women being more passive, quiet, and less assertive, due to the effects of the hidden curriculum. Because gender is something we learn, day-to-day interactions shape our understandings of how to do gender. Their communicative interactions may also single out other students. For example, a teacher may call on one or two students more than the others. This causes those who are called on less to be less confidant.
A gendered example would be a teacher expecting a girl to be good at coloring or a boy to be good at building. These types of interactions restrict a student to the particular role assigned to them.
Gender Influence on Educational Process | Gunda-Werner-Institute
While a teacher may not purposely try to communicate these differences, they may tend to make comments based on gender physical ability. A female, on the other hand, might be told she is too masculine looking to where she becomes more reserved and less motivated.
Females may not find interest in science, technology, engineering, or math STEMbecause they have not been exposed to those types of classes. This is because interactions within the school and society are pushing them towards easier, more feminine classes, such as home economics or art.
They also might not see many other women going into the STEM field. This then lowers the number of women in STEM, further producing and continuing this cycle. Because of interactions from teachers, such as saying boys do not usually cook, males may then be less likely to follow careers such as a chef, an artist, or a writer.