The perception scores of the doctor–patient relationship were of the role of mass media in the formation of opinion and trust between doctors. and public opinion, media and politics, media effects, public opinion and war the relationship between leaders and the public, we incorporate a The Trust: The Private and Powerful Family behind the New York Times. this relationship well with the following statement: We live in a amount of trust in the industry of the mass media. Through the explains the need for the public to trust mass media . no room for an unbiased opinion because, if the material.
Conclusion Vertical trust in mass media is associated with better health in Asian people. Since mass media is likely an important arena for public health, media trust should be enhanced to make people healthier. Background Social capital has developed as a concept indicating the quantity and quality of social interactions in the community and has emerged recently as an important determinant of health [ 1 ]. A society with high levels of social capital has high social participation among its citizens, high interpersonal trust, and high levels of institutional or organizational trust [ 23 ].
Studies suggest that societies and individuals with higher social capital have positive effects on various aspects of physical and psychological health among individuals in those societies [ 45 ].
Social capital is considered to promote health through mechanisms including effective reciprocal support, mutual respect, better access to local services, social control of deviant behavior and violence, and enhanced transmission of health information and healthy behavior [ 6 ].
Although social capital has been assessed as social participation or social trust [ 3 ], recent studies have suggested that a society with high social participation but with low social trust is associated with high-risk adverse behaviors to health [ 7 - 10 ].
Trust has emerged recently as the central means of achieving cooperation in inter-organizational and inter-individual relationships and promoting the accumulation of social capital [ 311 ]. Social trust reflects the expectation that an individual or institution will act competently, fairly, openly, and with concern [ 12 ], and can be divided into horizontal interpersonal trust and vertical institutional trust [ 3 ].
Horizontal trust flows across and among ordinary people. Vertical trust flows upward from people to public institutions in a society [ 13 ]. Development of the capacity to trust others is an essential element for successful social adjustment [ 14 ], and is considered an important predictor of health and psychological well-being [ 1516 ].
Persons with high vertical trust consider public institutions or organizations as trustful social resources and the levels of this vertical trust may vary between societies with the level of social connectedness [ 17 ].
For instance, the healthcare system is one of the important institutions in which people may feel different levels of trust. A higher vertical trust in the healthcare system has been shown to be associated with better self-rated health [ 17 ]. Patients with high trust in the healthcare system are likely to gain access to healthcare services, provide important medical information to healthcare providers, and may be better at following advice and completing prescriptions. However, little is known about the nature or role of vertical trust in terms of health determinants between other institutions and individuals in society.
In addition to the healthcare system, mass media is also considered one of the most important public institutions, and may have a considerable effect on public health through the levels of trust the people have in this institution [ 13 ], and vertical trust in mass media may be an important determinant of health. Mass media may function well with respect to improving health, along with relevant aspects of trust.
A potential pathway from high trust in mass media to better health is increased acceptance of health-related messages and the resultant dissemination of good behavior related to health throughout communities.
For instance, a recent study has shown that improvements in exercise and diet mediated by community-level projects are associated with better mental health [ 18 ]. The authors of the study on the New Deal for Communities in the UK suggest that better mental health and health-related behavior occur through increasing community cohesion and social capital more widely in the neighborhood, beyond people involved directly in lifestyle interventions [ 18 ].
In addition, a recent study has shown that public health agencies, using their communication and marketing resources effectively to support people in making healthful decisions and to foster health-promoting environments, have considerable opportunity to advance public health [ 19 ].
Thus, those with high trust in both the healthcare system and mass media may be more likely to receive these positive, and possibly synergistic, effects on health. Furthermore, the links between vertical and horizontal trust are well founded and are positively correlated in an amplifying cycle [ 20 ].
Indeed, a recent study has supported the trust propagation cycle, in which there are two types of vertical trust: Satisfaction with community services promotes vertical trust, as well as horizontal trust, and a trust cycle propagates trust within a community [ 20 ]. Thus, those with output vertical trust in mass media may be more likely to have higher trust in other institutions and horizontal trust, which can in turn lead to better health.
Despite the importance of examining the relationships between vertical trust in mass media, few studies have addressed these issues. Therefore, in this study, we aim at evaluating the association between distrust in mass media and poor health among Asians, using data from the AsiaBarometer Survey, comprising trans-national and multidimensional surveys conducted throughout Asia.
Methods Study participants We used data from the AsiaBarometer Survey —which included information on individuals from 29 Asian countries on a vast range of subjects [ 21 ]. For the purpose of the study, Hong Kong and Taiwan were considered independent countries, in view of their socioeconomic characteristics. Prior ethics committee approval was obtained from the Chuo University. We received written informed consent from the survey participants.
Data collection We used face-to-face interviews to administer structured questionnaires. The detailed content of the questionnaires has been published previously [ 21 ]. Data collection included demographics, marital status, socioeconomic factors income, education, and occupationself-rated health, interpersonal trust, and trust in the healthcare system and mass media, as well as information on political, environmental, and daily-life issues that were related to the AsiaBarometer Survey.
How do the mass media affect levels of trust in government? | The Policy and Internet Blog
The individual-level independent variables included gender, age range between 20 and 69 yearsmarital status, religious belief, income, education, employment, and individual-level social trust. Age was categorized into five groups of 20—29, 30—39, 40—49, 50—59, and 60—69 years old. Annual household income was used as an income variable in this study. Categories of the income groups included low, middle, and high, based on the income distribution of each country see Appendix A, in Additional file 1.
How do the mass media affect levels of trust in government?
For educational achievement, we also used three categories low, middle, and high based on the distribution of educational achievement in each country see Appendix B, in additional file 1. For occupational status, six categorical classes were used: The self-employed group included: Although the traditional media are mainly owned by multiple government agencies, an increasing number and diversity of new media has been leading to different styles and flow of ideas in the current Chinese society, and prone to pursuit public attention and chase the eyeball.
Doctor—patient relationship is one of appealing topics. Doctors in large public tertiary hospitals get kickbacks under-the-table payments based on number and value of prescriptions from pharmaceutical companies, and argued that the costs of kickbacks are absorbed by increased medicines prices, which are passed on healthcare systems and patients.
As the news report released a clear signal that doctors who get kickbacks are the prime culprit of high medicines price and unaffordable healthcare. This raised serious concerns of the negative impact on the fragile doctor—patient relationship in China, which already suffered from many structural problems in the Chinese health systems.
To address the above concerns, this study took the report as typical adverse news and generated evidence of the extent of the effect of such adverse news.
The study used a national survey of patients and doctors, and adverse news of China Central Television Station broadcast in the middle of the survey to analyse how the news report affected the public perceptions of the doctor—patient relationship in China.
The CHIES is intended to assess satisfaction among doctors and patients as well as their perceptions of the doctor—patient relationship. No other relevant breaking news was broadcasted during the national survey. To compare the the perception scores of the respondents in the before and after groups, there is a need to control the pretreatment characteristics that influence the treatment outcomes.
Supplementary file 1 bmjopensupp At least one provincial general hospital, one provincial traditional Chinese medicine hospital, and one provincial maternal and child hospital were targeted in each province.
In addition, all hospitals affiliated with the ministry of health were included as well, which consists of both general and specialty hospitals in major cities across the country.
A total of 28 complete questionnaires for ambulatory patients, 20 questionnaires for hospitalised patients and 19 questionnaires for doctors were retrieved from the CHIES database. Among these respondents, ambulatory patients, inpatients and doctors responded before the report; 19 ambulatory patients, 15 inpatients and 13 doctors responded after that the report.
Measurements The perceptions of the doctor—patient relationship of respective respondents ambulatory patients, hospitalised patients and doctors were identified as the outcome variable and measured with perception scores. The responded frequency of each statement was multiplied with the respective assignment value.
The results were added up, and divided by the total number of frequencies, and then multiplied by 20 to obtain the centesimal perception score of each statement. These were used as the controlled variables for matching analysis. Patient and public involvement Although this is not an actual randomised controlled trial, it still follows some of the requirements to provide necessary information: Before each of the survey questionnaire for outpatients, inpatients and doctors respectively, there were a statement informing the respondents that, the survey was designated by the National Health and Family Planning Commission, and was designed, organised and led by the Peking Union Medical College.