Motilal Nehru - Wikipedia
Motilal Nehru (6 May – 6 February ) was an Indian lawyer, an activist of the Indian Independence Movement and an important leader of the Indian National Congress, who also served as the Congress President twice, – and – He was the founder patriarch of the Nehru-Gandhi family. Relations, See Nehru–Gandhi family. Extra(6) Gandhiji's scheme of offering Prime Ministership to Jinnah in Viceroy Mountbatten's Interview with Pandit Nehru, 1 April (excerpt) . and might do irreparable damage to good relations between India and Great Britain. 7 . For Jinnah, whose vision was a federal India with the League sharing It may be stunning to know that Nehru, with Mahatma Gandhi's support.
So they were all guilty of riding that tiger? They all didn't understand that the negotiations they were doing -- the kind of brinksmanship, the hard line positions they were taking, all part of negotiations -- were happening against the backdrop of these increasing tensions all around the country.
They were too focused on what was happening in their little room and didn't understand this was having an impact elsewhere.
You describe that Nehru admitted, when discussing the Partition of Punjab, for instance, that they had not gone into any great detail about how it would actually happen. So Nehru's wrong doing was not just alienating his rival Jinnah but also not understanding the nitty-gritty of how Partition would unfold? They were all, perhaps, guilty of being vague about the details? About the ground realities?
None of them were administrators. None of them had ever held executive positions. They were all trained as lawyers and had become politicians.
So if you asked Nehru: Or about the police force, the administration. All stuff that the British had handled till that point They again didn't understand the reality of the impact of the things they were doing.
So in your view, would you equally apportion the blame? You wouldn't say perhaps Jinnah was more to blame? And also do you think if the Congress knew about Jinnah's poor health, the formation of Pakistan could have been avoided? This has come up all the time. His illness Jinnah was suffering from tuberculosis since the s. He wasn't hiding anything. He had been a sick man for many years. And in he wasn't any more sick than any other time.
He didn't get really sick until But he had tuberculosis? He had had it for years. In he had to take a whole month off, and recuperate in some village outside Karachi. The year before, he had done something similar. But wouldn't it have made a difference if people knew? Let's say he had died in Who is to say that whoever came after him, in the Muslim League, wouldn't have been more radical?
How do you know, somehow, that this would have been better for India? Let me give another analogy. Supposing you are having a child and you know you are not going to be around, some time after the child is born. You would definitely think a little more about how things would happen in your absence?
Pakistan, in a sense, was Jinnah's child. I have come across nothing to suggest that he thought he was about to die. I think he thought he was going to live for a long time and continue to lead Pakistan.
Even in the pictures taken on Pakistan's Independence Day he looked very frail. Oh yes, he was a sickly man. But a lot of sickly people think that they are healthy. As described in your account, in the days after Independence, as Nehru and Patel grappled with controlling the rioting, one might feel that Patel understood the reality better.
He seemed to have his finger on the pulse, even if he was a hardliner. Yet at the same time, one had to admire Nehru's dashing spirit in trying to go out there and discipline mobs single-handedly, in a sort of romantic Lochinvar style. Or was it more for show? Has your research shown he was really that kind of man? That was his genuine personality. I don';t think he was showing off for anyone. That captures both what's admirable and frustrating about him.
It is admirable, that in a cinematic sense, he would risk his life. It was also exactly the wrong thing for a leader to do. A leader, in order to effectively control the riots, should delegate and order the army to go there.
This is what frustrated Jinnah no end. He is sitting in Karachi, while these riots are happening. He's getting biased reports, but he is still getting reports of what is happening.
Jinnah is sitting and thinking: Why cannot Nehru and Patel -- they have this powerful army, police, a government in place -- why can't they control this? It is because instead of trying to control it Nehru was running around Jinnah's biographer Stanley Wolpert notes that there is no such inscription, but inside is a mural showing Muhammad and other lawgivers, and speculates that Jinnah may have edited the story in his own mind to avoid mentioning a pictorial depiction which would be offensive to many Muslims.
To gain knowledge of the law, he followed an established barrister and learned from what he did, as well as from studying lawbooks. This political education included exposure to the idea of the democratic nation, and progressive politics.
- Who divided India? Jinnah or Nehru?
- Muhammad Ali Jinnah
- ‘Friends and enemies’
Naoroji had become the first British Member of Parliament of Indian extraction shortly before Jinnah's arrival, triumphing with a majority of three votes in Finsbury Central.
Jinnah listened to Naoroji's maiden speech in the House of Commons from the visitor's gallery. Jinnah abandoned local garb for Western-style clothing, and throughout his life he was always impeccably dressed in public. He came to own over suits, which he wore with heavily starched shirts with detachable collars, and as a barrister took pride in never wearing the same silk tie twice.
His first three years in the law, from tobrought him few briefs. His first step towards a brighter career occurred when the acting Advocate General of Bombay, John Molesworth MacPherson, invited Jinnah to work from his chambers. Dastoor, a Bombay presidency magistrateleft the post temporarily and Jinnah succeeded in getting the interim position.
After his six-month appointment period, Jinnah was offered a permanent position on a 1, rupee per month salary. Jinnah politely declined the offer, stating that he planned to earn 1, rupees a day—a huge sum at that time—which he eventually did. This controversy arose out of Bombay municipal elections, which Indians alleged were rigged by a "caucus" of Europeans to keep Sir Pherozeshah Mehta out of the council. Jinnah gained great esteem from leading the case for Sir Pherozeshah, himself a noted barrister.
Although Jinnah did not win the Caucus Case, he posted a successful record, becoming well known for his advocacy and legal logic.
Before Tilak unsuccessfully represented himself at trial, he engaged Jinnah in an attempt to secure his release on bail. Jinnah did not succeed, but obtained an acquittal for Tilak when he was charged with sedition again in He was what God made him, a great pleader. He had a sixth sense: That is where his talents lay But he drove his points home—points chosen with exquisite selection—slow delivery, word by word. Indian independence movement and Pakistan movement Jinnah in Inmany Indians had risen in revolt against British rule.
In the aftermath of the conflict, some Anglo-Indians, as well as Indians in Britain, called for greater self-government for the subcontinent, resulting in the founding of the Indian National Congress in Most founding members had been educated in Britain, and were content with the minimal reform efforts being made by the government. Jinnah began political life by attending the Congress's twentieth annual meeting, in Bombay in December The Aga Khan later wrote that it was "freakishly ironic" that Jinnah, who would lead the League to independence, "came out in bitter hostility toward all that I and my friends had done He said that our principle of separate electorates was dividing the nation against itself.
He was a compromise candidate when two older, better-known Muslims who were seeking the post deadlocked. The council, which had been expanded to 60 members as part of reforms enacted by Minto, recommended legislation to the Viceroy.
Only officials could vote in the council; non-official members, such as Jinnah, had no vote. Throughout his legal career, Jinnah practised probate law with many clients from India's nobilityand in introduced the Wakf Validation Act to place Muslim religious trusts on a sound legal footing under British Indian law.
Two years later, the measure passed, the first act sponsored by non-officials to pass the council and be enacted by the Viceroy. He joined the following year, although he remained a member of the Congress as well and stressed that League membership took second priority to the "greater national cause" of an independent India.
In Aprilhe again went to Britain, with Gokhale, to meet with officials on behalf of the Congress. Gokhale, a Hindu, later stated that Jinnah "has true stuff in him, and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu—Muslim Unity".
By coincidence, he was in Britain at the same time as a man who would become a great political rival of his, Mohandas Gandhia Hindu lawyer who had become well known for advocating satyagrahanon-violent non-cooperation, while in South Africa.
Jinnah attended a reception for Gandhi, and returned home to India in January Nevertheless, Jinnah worked to bring the Congress and League together.pt.3 "Nehru, Jinnah responsible for Partition" - Jaswant
Inwith Jinnah now president of the Muslim League, the two organisations signed the Lucknow Pactsetting quotas for Muslim and Hindu representation in the various provinces.
Although the pact was never fully implemented, its signing ushered in a period of co-operation between the Congress and the League. Along with political leaders Annie Besant and Tilak, Jinnah demanded " home rule " for India—the status of a self-governing dominion in the Empire similar to Canada, New Zealand and Australia, although, with the war, Britain's politicians were not interested in considering Indian constitutional reform.
British Cabinet minister Edwin Montagu recalled Jinnah in his memoirs, "young, perfectly mannered, impressive-looking, armed to the teeth with dialecticsand insistent on the whole of his scheme".
She was the fashionable young daughter of his friend Sir Dinshaw Petitand was part of an elite Parsi family of Bombay. Rattanbai defied her family and nominally converted to Islamadopting though never using the name Maryam Jinnah, resulting in a permanent estrangement from her family and Parsi society.
The couple's only child, daughter Dinawas born on 15 August There was unrest across India, which worsened after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsarin which British troops fired upon a protest meeting, killing hundreds. This reflects the extraordinary reverence in which his contemporaries held him and the way that he seems not to have abused the space and authority this granted him.
He was essentially the same in public and private. He never stood on ceremony, or hectored his opponents, no matter how far apart he stood from them on the issues at hand, whether he was addressing the king or a minor Raj official. His ability to reach out informally across political and social divides was extraordinary; during his trip to England inhe managed to befriend the very mill workers that his hand-spinning was intended to condemn to unemployment.
Gandhi also enjoyed a much wider and warmer kind of political support than that which Jinnah constructed so painstakingly. His political aims were easily understood and generally shared. Just as importantly, his methods were thought to be correct; Indian freedom under Gandhi was to be won in an Indian way.
To oppose him coming from within either orthodox Hinduism or broad Congress philosophy would have seemed either irreverent or un-Indian. Those who did oppose him found it difficult to remain in the Congress: Jinnah inC. Das inand Bose in had to leave and create their own platforms to oppose him at an all-India level.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah - Wikipedia
Criticizing the Mahatma was potentially a short cut to the political wilderness. Contemporary critics of Gandhi were not usually close to him, mainly because he tended not to leave cast-offs But through it all Nehru always admired him, and thought of him as a magician, capable of pulling off feats of political sorcery of which no one else was capable. His unique ability to do this, and the unifying and empowering effect of that ability, was the main factor that pulled the Congress out of its middle-class youth, then anchored it as a powerful force at the centre of Indian politics.
Several senior members of the Congress did later write memoirs containing criticisms of Gandhi ranging from mild to severe.