Gary Beadle | Revolvy
WORKING. FOR YOU japancarnews.info ANNUAL REPORT. .. publications) and on our relationship/ .. GB climbing teams: Dave Mason replaced Gaz. Parry as Charlotte Garden Wooler Outdoor Week and the Chevy Chase fell. A night out in Sunderland ends in disaster as Aaron sees Marnie and Scott getting way too close and the boys square up, and Charlotte and Gary's relationship. A memorial service will be held at 11 a.m. on Saturday, July 14, , at United Methodist Church Quesada Ave., Port Charlotte, Â€ Gary Allen Poage, 52, address withheld. Â€ Chevy Ingram, 31, block of Southland Road, Venice. .. Bonds have an inverse relationship to interest rates.
The latter claimed a protectorate over parts of the Sakalava kingdom by virtue of treaties made inand disputes over this claim and over French properties on the island resulted in a war in which was ended in by a treaty giving the French control over Merina foreign policy.
The British recognized the French position under the terms of the Anglo-French Agreement ofin exchange for French recognition of a British protectorate over Zanzibar. This exchange cleared the way for the French annexation of Madagascar in Malagasy resistance, especially in the south, was not finally overcome untilhowever. The impress of his policies remained substantial until the end of World War II.
His successors, career colonial officials, struggled to promote economic growth, but World War Isubsequent economic difficulties in France, and the prolonged depression of the s, together with the absence of easily exploitable resources, the distance of Madagascar from its main markets, and the shortage of labor, combined to impede their efforts. During World War IIthe Vichy French retained control of Madagascar until it was occupied in by British troops to prevent its naval facilities from being used by the Japanese.
InFrench administration was restored under Gen.
Madagascar became a French overseas territory in All Malagasy thus became French citizens, but only a limited number were accorded the franchise mainly those with some education or experience of European ways in the French civil services or armed forces.
A Territorial Assembly was established, with some control of the budget. It was composed entirely of members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies. Although the latter had a majority of the seats in both provincial and territorial assemblies, the number of seats assigned to the metropolitan electorate was most disproportionate to its numerical strength.
This system was denounced by the nationalists, who had secured a majority of the Malagasy seats in the Territorial Assembly as well as the three Malagasy seats in the French National Assembly. In Marcha rebellion broke out, and for a time the French lost control of the east coast. Europeans and loyal Malagasy were murdered and roads cut.
The suppression of the rebellion required substantial forces and took more than a year. Loss of life was estimated at 11, The nationalist movement was disrupted by the rebellion and subsequent repressions, but was not destroyed. A period of reform beginning in resulted in abolition of the dual electorate system, placed Malagasy in important government positions, and led to the rebirth of serious political activity.
The End of French Rule In the referendum of 28 SeptemberMadagascar overwhelmingly voted for the new French constitution and became an autonomous republic in the new French Community. As the Malagasy Republic, it became a sovereign independent nation on 26 June and on 20 September was elected to UN membership.
The constitution that was adopted in October and amended in June provided Madagascar with a strong presidential form of government. The president, Philibert Tsiranana, remained in power until Maywhen there were riots throughout Madagascar.
The protests were led by a nationalist, leftist coalition of students, teachers, laborers, and urban unemployed. The repression that followed these demonstrations led to the fall of the Tsiranana government on 18 May. Gabriel Ramanantsoa was immediately asked to form a nonpolitical "government of national unity," which was composed of 11 ministers 5 military and 6 civilian. Ramanantsoa effectively destroyed the coalition by raising the minimum wages, providing strike pay, annulling the head and cattle taxes, prosecuting corrupt officials, and introducing price and currency controls.
The new government also broke diplomatic ties with South Africaestablished relations with the Communist bloc, withdrew from the franc zone, and arranged for the withdrawal of French military forces under new cooperation agreements with France. On 5 Februaryfollowing a period of social and ethnic unrest, Ramanantsoa was replaced as head of state by Col. Richard Ratsimandrava, who was assassinated in an attempted coup six days later. A military Directorate composed of 18 officers was immediately formed and assumed all governmental authority.
The Directorate was superseded on 13 June by the all-military Supreme Council of the Revolution, headed by Didier Ratsiraka, who had been minister of foreign affairs in the Ramanantsoa government. Ratsiraka was installed as president on 4 Januarythus remaining head of state.
The new regime accelerated growing state control of the economy, and Madagascar turned to the former USSR and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea for military aid. Byhowever, growing economic difficulties forced Ratsiraka to develop closer ties with the West.
Unemployment, inflation, and scarcities of basic foodstuffs caused serious rioting and social unrest in the early s. Ratsiraka was elected to a new term as president on 7 November During —87, the government was shaken by student protests against educational reforms, rioting in the port of Toamasina, attacks on Indo-Pakistani enterprises in four major urban centers, and famine in the south because of food-supply problems.
By earlythe governing coalition appeared to be unraveling. On May Dayfour of the parties called for the resignation of the government and early elections. Democratization Unleashed In Julyafter seven weeks of pro-democracy protests, Ratsiraka finally agreed to dissolve the cabinet and begin talks with the opposition. He also offered to hold a referendum on a new constitution by the end of Although he rejected demonstrators' demands that he resign, Ratsiraka released Albert Zafy, a popular opponent, and offered to form a coalition government with opposition leaders.
Protests continued, and government troops fired on demonstrators in Antananarivo, killing as many as In August, Ratsiraka asked his prime minister, Guy Willy Razanamasy, to form a new government and to "install democracy.
Ratsiraka's Revolutionary Supreme Council stepped down from power. The democratization process survived an attempted coup on 29 Julyled by a faction of the Active Forces known as the Lifeblood Committee. On 19 Augusta new constitution was approved by national referendum.
Ratsiraka's supporters interfered with the voting, seeking greater provincial autonomy. However the interior peoples, especially the Merina, strongly supported the new constitution.
This was followed on 25 November by a presidential election, which a team of foreign observers deemed free and fair. Zafy defeated Ratsiraka, but without an absolute majority. The president was installed in March, amid violent confrontations between Ratsiraka's supporters and government forces. Parliamentary elections were held in June for the new National Assembly.
Twenty-five parties won representation with Zafy's Forces Vives FV taking the largest block of seats— Eight parties had more than five seats. Communal territorial elections, the first step in creation of the Senate, were held in Novemberbut President Zafy's day in the sun was short-lived. He was impeached in Septemberand then defeated by Ratsiraka in competitive elections in December An extensive revision of the constitution was approved narrowly in a March constitutional referendum.
International observers found the conduct of the referendum generally free and fair, but problems involving the compilation of voter lists, distribution of electoral cards, and other issues led to charges of fraud and manipulation.
Holly Hagan | Revolvy
The revised constitution reduced checks and balances and strengthened the presidency at the expense of the National Assembly. Parliamentary elections held in May generally were free and fair, but there were credible complaints of electoral fraud. In Novembermunicipal elections were held for 1, mayoral posts and 20, council seats. After 29 years of dormancy, the Senate reconvened in May However, a national crisis ensued following the 16 December presidential election when challenger Marc Ravalomanana claimed to have won the election outright over incumbent Didier Ratsiraka, thereby eliminating the need for a run-off.
The official results gave Ravalomanana Albert Zafy Rasalama claimed 5. With Ratsiraka refusing to step down, Ravalomanana and his supporters mounted strikes and protests culminating in Ravalomanana's siezure of the presidency in February Operating from his provincial fiefdom, Toamasina, Ratsiraka commanded his armed forces to lay siege to the capital, blowing up key bridges and cutting off foodstuffs and other critical supplies.
The violence resulted in more than 70 deaths. US recognition of Ravalomanana in June was followed by international approval, forcing Ratsiraka in July to seek exile in France ending seven months of political and economic chaos in the country. Ravalomanana's first 18 months in power were marked by his consolidation of power, which was countered by a reorganization of opposition parties. None of the opposition parties, however, presented a serious challenge to Ravalomanana's power.
Indeed, the president's first moves were to punish supporters of the old government including the last prime minister, Andrianarivo, who was detained and put on trial. However, under pressure from Zafy's forces, Ravalomanana pardoned those serving sentences of less than three years and invited others to apply for amnesty.
The influential Madagascar Council of Churches led the movement for reconciliation resulting in broad support for compromise. In Decemberthe president's party, Tiako-I-Madagasikara TIM dominated national assembly elections, but in the November municipal polls, TIM's opponents gained 18 of 45 of the most important mayoral posts up for election.
The results speak to the importance of local power bases in Madagascar. Internationally, Ravalomanana was able to restore donor confidence in the economy, largely through the leadership of his prime minister, Jacques Sylla. Gradually, the administration established productive relations with African states that were expected to lead to Madagascar's admission to the Southern Africa Development Community SADC.
The MCA agreement was signed in early France and the United Kingdom have also been supportive of the Ravalomanana government. Although Ravalomanana remained politically strong going intohe was expected to face stiff challenges led by Albert Zafy, Richard Andriamanjato, a former parliamentary speaker, and the former chairman of the national council of churches, Edmond Razafimahefa. Nevertheless, the president rejected demands for a transition government leading into the presidential elections scheduled for lateand also resisted European calls for a new electoral law and more independent elections commission.
Analysts predicted that the president's party, TIM also could be vulnerable in the legislative elections because of its weak grassroots base that other parties have shown themselves capable of organizing.
The president was elected for a seven-year term and was both chief executive and head of state. The premier, the designated head of government, was appointed by the president and assisted by a cabinet.
The 19 August constitution of the Third Republic provides for a head of state, the president, who is elected by universal suffrage to serve a five-year term.
The president chooses a prime minister from a list of candidates nominated by the national assembly. The prime minister appoints the Council of Ministers. The constitution provides for a two-chamber legislature—a member national assembly and a senate. Members of the national assembly are elected by universal suffrage—82 by single-member and 34 by two-member constituencies—to serve four-year terms.
The president appoints the remaining one-third. Regional assemblies elected by direct suffrage select two-thirds of the members of the seat senate with the remaining one-third appointed by the president for a four-year term. Suffrage is universal at age The French, however, organized the island as an overseas territory, granting the vote to few Malagasy.
In the wake of the rebellion, the leaders of the MDRM, whom the French accused of planning and leading the revolt, were convicted of treason and sentenced to death later commuted to life imprisonment.
Charges of French brutality in the suppression of the revolt, however, gained considerable sympathy for the nationalist cause. It was organized in under the leadership of Philibert Tsiranana, the son of a Tsimihety peasant, and advocated a gradual approach to independence.
In the and elections, it increased its representation to seats. The PSD was supported principally by peasants and other conservative elements, and favored strong ties with France. Tsiranana, who became president inwas reelected in and again injust prior to his overthrow.
Other parties represented regions, provinces, tribes, or religious groups, but displayed little national strength.
RhymeZone: gaz definitions
It represented the more radical intellectuals and landless peasants of the south. As a result of its armed opposition to the central government in Aprilwhich was quickly and harshly suppressed, MONIMA became a truly left-wing opposition movement with support among students and urban radicals.FIRST TIMES WITH CHARLOTTE AND GAZ GEORDIE SHORE!! - MTV
After the assassination of the new head of state, Richard Ratsimandrava, in Februaryall political parties were banned. In effect, however, the FNDR became an umbrella group under which parties survived as "revolutionary associations. In the presidential election of 7 NovemberPresident Ratsiraka won reelection with Since the democratic changes of andnumerous political organizations have operated in Madagascar. Ratsiraka turned on his former policies by proposing a federalist arrangement that would give more autonomy to the provinces.
In the municipal elections on 14 NovemberAREMA captured three of the six regional capitals, having previously held just one. The biggest losers were established opposition party candidates such as former president Albert Zafy, who was beaten in his own political stronghold of Antsiranana. Marc Ravalomanana, a year-old businessman and a principal donor of funds to the AVI centrist party, won the mayorship of Antananarivo, the capital city.
Although the vote was marred by poor organization, almost all the 1, mayorships and 20, council seats were contested by at least two candidates. Many these were independents, which seemed to signal that local elections were no longer being run from national party headquarters in the capital. In the 15 December parliamentary elections, Ravalomanana's I Love Madagascar TIMcaptured a combined total of out of seats in parliament. The election results minus presidential appointments were as follows: The opposition criticized the poll as manipulated by the president's party.
In the early run-up to the national assembly elections expected in earlyAREMA appeared fractured by Toamasina major, Roland Ratsiraka, nephew of former president Didier Ratsiraka, who has led a youthful wing of the party to reconciliation with the Ravalomanana administration. The opposition was expected to make gains in the national assembly elections scheduled forhowever, Mr. Ravalomanana was expected to retain the presidency given that no opposition figure appeared to have the national appeal sufficient to unseat him.
At the local level were some 11, fokontany village or urban neighborhood organizations with an elected president and council. All levels of the Malagasy state were organized in hierarchical fashion within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior. During the campaign, former president Didier Ratsiraka promised to draft laws that would make provinces autonomous. He subsequently sponsored workshops to gather input and share ideas with regional leaders.
This controversial plan transfered power from the central government to the provinces and municipalities, and to administrative subdivisions for tax collection, service provision, and development planning. However, it was widely feared that provincial autonomy would threaten Madagascar's political unity. Ravalomanana introduced a new structure that makes 22 new regions the main administrative units.
Consequently, the power of the six autonomous provinces was greatly reduced, which was reflected in their shrinking budgets. While the regional leaders are centrally appointed, the municipal mayors, who exercise considerable power, are elected by direct popular vote. During the s and s the nation began a move from a bifurcated judicial system customary courts for most Malagasy and local courts for foreign residents and urbanized Malagasy to a single judicial system.
At the top of the judicial system is the Supreme Court in Antananarivo. Other courts include the Court of Appeal, also in Antananarivo; courts of first instance for civil and criminal cases; ordinary and special criminal courts; and military courts.
Military courts presided over by civilian magistrates hear cases involving national security. The traditional courts dina continue to handle some civil disputes and recently have been used in criminal cases because of inconvenience and inadequacy of the formal court system.
Decisions by dina are not subject to the formal procedural protections of the formal court system. In some cases, however, they may be challenged at the appeals court level. Dina's authority depends upon the mutual respect and consensus of the parties to abide by the ruling. Dina punishments are sometimes severe and include capital punishment. The constitution guarantees an independent judiciary, and in practice the judiciary appears to be independent from the executive.
In Aprila critical test of the judicial system occurred. With both Ratsiraka and Ravalomanana agreeing to a recount of the December polls, the High Constitutional Court declared Ravalomanana the winner. Ratsiraka defied the verdict, but Ravalomanana was sworn in for the second time on 6 May as Madagascar's fourth head of state.
The Army's equipment included 12 light tanks and over 37 artillery pieces.
The Air Force operated 14 transport and 5 utility fixed wing aircraft, and 6 support helicopters. There were no combat aircraft. The paramilitary Gendarmerie National, which had a strength of 8, is the main force for the maintenance of public order and internal security.
Madagascar is a member of the Nonaligned Movement. Its agriculture-based economy supports a majority of the labor force. Madagascar sponsored an Export Processing Zone in and important investments have been made in tourism.
Government efforts to strengthen the market economy have been erratic, while corruption and political instability continue to constrain growth. The country's infrastructure remains poor, with inadequate roads preventing the transportation of agricultural products from farm to market. Railroads and the port system are also undeveloped, although the telecommunications system is being revamped.
The IMF and World Bank in released tranches of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility, and Structural Adjustment Credit, respectively, to assist the country in reducing poverty and implementing market reforms conducive to private sector development. Rice is the staple crop although Madagascar has sought to diversify crop production by promoting maize and potatoes.
Cassava, bananas, and sweet potatoes are also important. Export crops are coffee, vanilla, and cloves, with coffee the most important. A decline in world coffee prices by had stifled growth.
The sugar sector has been revived with the help of French investments. Economic growth has been very instable in recent years, dropping from 6. Inflation has followed a similar pattern, growing from 6. There are no available figures for unemployment. Though Madagascar has a considerable diversity of minerals, their remote locations have discouraged extraction. Chromite, graphite, and mica are exported along with gems such as topaz, garnets, and amethysts.
Private mining interests have been invited to develop Madagascar's gold deposits, as well as ilmenite, zircon, rutile, nickel, platinum, and bauxite. There has also been renewed interest in Madagascar's oil potential. Madagascar is rich in biodiversity, and many plants and animals found there exist nowhere else in the world.
Hence, ecotourism is a sector of the economy with great potential for development. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 6.
It was estimated that agriculture accounted for Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period to household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 2. Although a survey put Madagascar's unemployment rate at 4. Both public and private sector workers have the right to establish and join labor unions of their choice.
Unions are required to register with the government, but authorization is customarily given. The law provides for collective agreements between employers and trade unions.
Strikes are legally permitted. Working conditions are regulated by the constitution and the labor code. The law sets the minimum working age at 14 18 where the work is hazardous but this minimum is enforced only in the small formal sector of the economy. In the large agricultural sector, many children work with their parents on family farms. The standard legal workweek is 40 hours in industry, and Large-scale plantations dominate the production of sisal, sugarcane, tobacco, bananas, and cotton, but, overall, Malagasy agriculture is dependent mainly on small-scale subsistence farmers cultivating less than one hectacre 2.
A wide variety of food crops is grown. Rice is the staple of the Malagasy diet; production was an estimated 3, tons in The book's official release date is Oct. Joe Nemechek will have a long-time sponsor, Fleetwing, on board his No. Fleetwing Corporation, a multi-branded petroleum jobber established inwill adorn the hood of the No. Based in Lakeland, Fla. Also sponsoring Nemechek will be D. Contractors, a service-oriented construction company in Central Florida.
The second generation driver will compete in the Truck Series event Aug. Talladega Superspeedway is thrilled to announce that Joyride, a golf cart transportation service, will be offered to fans this weekend for the track's anticipated tripleheader, April Joyride can transport up to five passengers at a time and will actually be available starting Thursday, April 26, for fans arriving early and will continue throughout the remainder of the weekend.
The drivers all had the same goal in mind, helping Goodyear create the best tire for the racing on the two-mile oval.
Leavine is the grandson of team owner, Bob Leavine, and has served as the Director of Operations at the organization for the past year. Who said you can't go home? Petty's Garage will be on the hood with Medallion Bank on the sides of a new No. Some of the drivers entered include: Since 40 cars are entered, all drivers will make the race.
Though it appeared to be triggered by Ricky Stenhouse Jr. The partnership will be the first for the zero-turn mower manufacturer and the Talladega race winner. RSS Racing will again race three cars as it did at the season opening race at Daytona.
Additionally, J Pigg Construction will join the 39 team as a major associate sponsor. There are 41 cars on the preliminary entry list for Saturday's Spark Energy at Talladega Superspeedway. See the complete list on the Talladega entry list page. And, great seating options are still available.