Robespierre and Danton | Ideas
Just past 31, Maximilien Robespierre mingled with the liberal . Relations cooled over whether the constitution should give the king a veto of legislation. . The minister of justice in the Girondin government, Georges Danton. pregnant at the time of her marriage, and François' parents had refused to attend the ceremony . both emotionally cold and of writing mawkish love poems. Robespierre's alleged abandonment of his friends Danton and Desmoulins as they. The conflict between Robespierre and Danton is a battle of ideas, the . Robespierre's relationship with Danton is also the subject of Georg.
Her parents were cousins. The two developed a close relationship, and Corday was the sole heir to her cousin's estate. She admired their speeches and grew fond of many of the Girondist groups whom she met while living in Caen. She respected the political principles of the Girondins and came to align herself with their thinking. She regarded them as a movement that would ultimately save France. They opposed the Montagnards, who advocated a more radical approach to the revolution, which included the extreme idea that the only way the revolution would survive invasion and civil war was through terrorizing and executing those opposed to it.
Corday's action aided in restructuring the private versus public role of the woman in society at the time. The idea of women as second class or "less than" was challenged, and Corday was considered a hero to those who were against the teachings of Marat.
There have been suggestions that her act incited the banning of women's political clubs, and the executions of female activists such as the Girondist Madame Roland.
I have killed one man to save a hundred thousand. Corday's notion that she was saving a hundred thousand lives echoes this Girondin sentiment as they attempted to slow the revolution and reverse the violence that had escalated since the September Massacres of Marat's assassination[ edit ] Jean-Paul Marat was a member of the radical Jacobin faction that had a leading role during the Reign of Terror.
As a journalist, he exerted power and influence through his newspaper, L'Ami du peuple "The Friend of the People". She intended to make an example out of him, but upon arriving in Paris she discovered that Marat no longer attended meetings because his health was deteriorating due to a skin disorder perhaps dermatitis herpetiformis. She was then forced to change her plan. She went to Marat's home before noon on 13 July, claiming to have knowledge of a planned Girondist uprising in Caen ; she was turned away by Catherine Evrard, the sister of his fiancee Simonne.
At the time, he conducted most of his affairs from a bathtub because of his skin condition. Marat wrote down the names of the Girondists that she gave to him, and she then pulled out the knife and plunged it into his chest.
The iconic pose of Marat dead in his bath is viewed from a different angle in Baudry 's painting of illustration, below. In response to Marat's dying shout, Simonne Evrard rushed into the room. She was joined by a distributor of his newspaper, who seized Corday. Two neighbors, a military surgeon and a dentist, attempted to revive Marat. Republican officials arrived to interrogate Corday and to calm a hysterical crowd who appeared ready to lynch her.
Charlotte Corday sent the following farewell letter to her father which was intercepted and read during the trial, the letter helping to establish that Marat murder was premeditated: Ce 16 juillet Forgive me, my dear father, for having ended my existence without your permission.
I avenged many innocent victims, I prevented many other disasters. The people, when they become disillusioned some day, will rejoice to be rid of a tyrant. If I sought to persuade you that I was leaving for England, it's because I hoped to remain incognito, but I have recognized its impossibility. I hope that you will not be tormented.
In any case, I believe that you will have defenders in Caen. I took Gustave Doulcet as my defender: Farewell my dear father, I beg you to forget me, or rather to rejoice at my fate, for the cause is beautiful. I embrace my sister, whom I love with all my heart, as well as my parents. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Danton was born in Arcis-sur-Aube in northeastern France to Jacques Danton and Mary Camus; a respectable, but not wealthy family.
As a child, he was attacked by several animals, resulting in the disfigurement and scarring of the skin on his face, also contributed to by smallpox.
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The couple had three sons: She looked after his two surviving sons. One of many clubs important in the early phases of the Revolution, the Cordeliers was a centre for the "popular principle", that France was to be a country of its people under popular sovereignty ; they were the earliest to accuse the royal court of being irreconcilably hostile to freedom; and they most vehemently proclaimed the need for radical action.
In Junethe King and the Queen made a disastrous attempt to flee from the capital. They were forced to return to the Tuileries Palacewhich effectively became their prison. Queen Marie Antoinette opened negotiations with the moderate leaders of the Revolution in an attempt to save the monarchy and to establish a moderate constitutional settlement.
A bloody dispersion of a popular gathering, known as the massacre of the Champ de Mars Julykindled resentment against the court and the constitutional party.
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Danton was, in part, behind the crowd that gathered and fearing counter-revolutionary backlash, he fled to England for the rest of the summer.
Due to the Self-denying Ordinance none of its members were eligible to its successor, the short-lived Legislative Assembly. Danton's party was able to procure for him a subordinate post in the Paris Commune. In Aprilthe Girondist government—still functioning as a constitutional monarchy—declared war against Austria.
A country in turmoil from the immense civil and political changes of the past two years now faced war with an enemy on its eastern frontier. Parisian distrust for the court turned to open insurrection.
Danton's role in this uprising is unclear. He may have been one of its leaders; this view is supported because on the morning after the effective fall of the monarchy, Danton became minister of justice. This sudden rise from the subordinate office which he held in the commune is a demonstration of his power within the insurrectionist party.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. February Learn how and when to remove this template message According to a biographer, "Danton's height was colossal, his make athletic, his features strongly marked, coarse, and displeasing; his voice shook the domes of the halls". Their strength was soon put to the test. The alarming successes of the Austrians and the surrender of two important fortresses caused panic in the capital; over a thousand prisoners were murdered.
At that time, Danton was accused of directing these September Massacresbut no evidence of this is available from modern research. However, he apparently did nothing to prevent the atrocities, and instead insisted that his colleagues should remain firm at their posts.
The election to the National Convention took place in September ; after which the remnant of the Legislative Assembly formally surrendered its authority. The Convention ruled France until October Danton was a member; resigning as Minister of Justice once it was clear that the invading Austrian and Prussian armies had been turned back, he took a prominent part in the deliberations and proceedings of the Convention.
He found himself side by side with Maratwhose exaggerations he never countenanced; with Maximilien Robespierrewhom he did not regard very highly, but whose immediate aims were in many respects his own; with Camille Desmoulins and Pierre Philippeauxwho were his close friends and constant partisans.
Danton saw radical Paris as the only force to which the National Convention could look in resisting Austria and its allies on the north-east frontier, and the reactionaries in the interior. It is the centre of light. When Paris shall perish there will no longer be a republic. After the execution had been carried out, he thundered "The kings of Europe would dare challenge us?
We throw them the head of a king! When all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety 6 AprilDanton had been one of the nine original members of that body. He was dispatched on frequent missions from the Convention to the republican armies in Belgiumand wherever he went he infused new energy into the army. He pressed forward the new national system of educationand he was one of the legislative committee charged with the construction of a new system of government.
He tried and failed to bridge the hostilities between Girondists and Jacobins. The Girondists were irreconcilable, and the fury of their attacks on Danton and the Mountain was unremitting. Fall of the Girondists[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.
June Learn how and when to remove this template message Although he was—again in the words of the Britannica—"far too robust in character to lose himself in merely personal enmities", by the middle of May Danton had made up his mind that the Girondists must be politically suppressed. The Convention was wasting time and force in vindictive factional recriminations, while the country was in crisis.
Danton had defended Dumouriez against attacks in Convention, probably to allow Dumouriez to concentrate on the war, before the General's defection, so it decreased Danton's standing with the public and made him lose some of the support of the more moderate members of the Jacobin club.
The French armies were suffering a series of checks and reverses. A royalist rebellion was gaining formidable dimensions in the west.
The Girondists were clamoring for the heads of Danton and his colleagues in the Mountain a name for the group of Jacobins in the General Assembly, stemming from their raised seats in the back of the hallbut they would lose this struggle to the death.
Danton addressing the National Convention. There is no positive evidence that Danton directly instigated the insurrection of 31 May — 2 Junewhich ended in the purge of the Convention and the proscription of the Girondists.
He afterwards spoke of himself as in some sense the author of this revolution, because a little while before, stung by some trait of factious perversity in the Girondists, he had openly cried out in the midst of the Convention, that if he could only find a hundred men, they would resist the oppressive authority of the Girondist Commission of Twelve. At any rate, he certainly acquiesced in the violence of the communeand he publicly gloried in the expulsion of the men who stood obstinately in the way of a vigorous and concentrated exertion of national power.
Danton, unlike the Girondists, "accepted the fury of popular passion as an inevitable incident in the work of deliverance. The authors of the Britannica see him at this time as wishing "to reconcile France with herself; to restore a society that, while emancipated and renewed in every part, should yet be stable; and above all to secure the independence of his country, both by a resolute defence against the invader, and by such a mixture of vigour with humanity as should reconcile the offended opinion of the rest of Europe.
In the Constituent Assembly, its members had been a mere 30 out of the of the third estate. In the Legislative Assembly, they had not been numerous, and none of their chiefs held a seat.