India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
Furthermore, considering Pakistan-India trade relations; barriers to bilateral trade ; . accepted worth of Pakistan's currency and agreement of trade was revived. ll➤ 【₹1 = ₨】 Indian rupee to Pakistani rupee today's rate. Free online currency conversion based on exchange rates. Currency converter The converter . News about India-Pakistan relations. Commentary and archival information about India-Pakistan relations from The New York Times.
After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan. Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight. The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir.
The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army. The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot. The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan.
The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots.
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Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts. Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident. This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack.
At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national.Pakistan and Iran Trade In Local Currency --Pakistan and Iran Relations 2018
This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets. They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan". India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons.
InIndia's nuclear program was aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, with Indira Gandhi carefully overseeing the development of weapons. Starting preparations for a nuclear test inIndia finally exploded its first nuclear bomb in Pokhran test range, codename Smiling Buddhain No official announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan government. Ina mutual understanding was reached between the two countries in which each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities.
Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also initiated, also in Pokhran-II which invited Pakistan to follow the latter's step and performed its own atomic tests see: Talks and other confidence building measures After the war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations.
They signed the Simla Agreementby which India would return all Pakistani personnel over 90, and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations.
The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks. In Junethe foreign secretaries identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would be focused.
The conflict over the status of Kashmir, referred by India as Jammu and Kashmiran issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue. It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied. In Septemberthe talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security.
Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups. India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements.
A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations. The talks fell through. The first and the last opportunity for India-Pakistan peace was the Simla Agreement.
We know who was insincere from the moment the agreement was signed. This is precisely when Zulfikar Ali Bhutto an elected, civilian leader with the vanquished Army deflated launched Pakistan on to the path of pan-Islamisation and nuclearisation. Bhutto Senior wanted it to be a war Pakistan would never lose again. Bhutto founded this post strategic doctrine. We could argue that Pakistan lost in Kargil.
Or a provocation like that would have invited a full military response.
Why friendly ties with India will be a boon for Pakistan
By the time Bhutto was done re-toxifying his country, his Army was set to reclaim power. It has gone through challenges, particularly from two full-majority governments under Nawaz Sharif. But now the template is set. An elected government is allowed as an optical necessity. Foreign, strategic, India-US-China policies, control of the nukes, temperature in Kashmir, Afghanistan are all out of the syllabus for elected governments. With increased tax revenues available to spend on infrastructure and economic development and with the possibility of increased cross border gains from trade, Pakistan would be much better poised than it is at present to jump start its faltering economy.
A putative partnership with India makes economic sense. The end result will be that Pakistan will be in hock to China and even worse off than today. No doubt they reckon that given that Pakistan is evidently crucial to the US effort to fight Islamic terrorism in South Asia, they can always rely on a lifeline of US or IMF support whenever the economy falters due to mismanagement and corruption.
While India continues its rise, Pakistan continues to stumble from crisis to crisis, whether it is a weakening economy kept alive by injections of foreign money or a dysfunctional political system in which a popularly elected sitting Prime Minister can be ousted by unelected judges at the behest of the military. The fact that Modi addressed the opening session at the recent World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, suggests how far India has come on the world stage as compared to Pakistan.
There is no more potent signal that, despite some recent wobbles, India remains among the fastest growing and most important emerging economies in the world, and the most important democracy in the emerging world. In the end, it is the people of Pakistan who will benefit from normalizing relations with India, and it is they who ultimately will need to see the gains to be reaped.